Enrichment of meat emulsion with mushroom powder
The deficiency of meat products is that they are low in dietary fiber. Studies on the preparation of new, “healthier” meat products have garnered great interest in recent years (Roohinejad et al., 2017). Therefore, meat products prepared with substances from plants have gained attention for providing food with functional effects; thus, investigation of the interaction between animal and plant protein is also necessary to produce balanced animal and plant protein mixtures for obtaining derived meat products. The effects of incorporating ingredients such as dietary fiber (A?ar et al., 2016, Hu et al., 2016) and seaweed (Roohinejad et al., 2017) on the improvement of emulsion stability and texture have been investigated in previous studies.
Mushrooms are considered to be a next-generation health food due to their rich protein content with high biological value, fiber and bioactive compounds. As functional ingredients, the phenolic compounds, antioxidants and non digestible carbohydrates (dietary fiber) of mushroom powder are also important in the production of functional heathy food. As a fortifying agent, various mushroom powders have been supplemented into biscuits, wheat cookies, crackers and sponge cakes, as reported by Arora et al. (2017). The effect of using dried mushroom on lipid oxidation and color properties in sucuk (fermented meat product) during storage was studied by Gençcelep (2012).
In a recent study, Turish researchers investigated the influence of mushroom powder (0-3%) on the rheological and physicochemical properties of model emulsions containing protein-coated fat droplets. Samples with 2% MP added exhibited higher resistance to applied stress and higher gel-like behavior, complex viscosity, pseudoplastic behavior, heat resistance and emulsion strength compared with other samples. Modifications of the chemical structure of emulsions with MP included were confirmed by examination of Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The addition of 2% MP provided a higher protein adsorption at the lipid interface, resulting in a well-ordered emulsion structure. As a final product, cooked meat emulsion exhibited improvement in textural properties with the addition of 2% MP. Therefore, supplementation of emulsions with mushroom powder may help to obtain a functional product with better characteristics.
Improved emulsion characteristics were postulated due to the presence of constituents such as (i) protein, which is responsible for surface activity from the presence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic side chains in the protein structure, (ii) polysaccharides, which behave as emulsion stabilizers by forming an extended network in the continuous phase through an increase in viscosity and (iii) fiber, which exhibits desirable effects based on its water binding properties. In addition to the emulsion stability improvement, this study also considered enrichment of the emulsion for production of functional meat products. The resulting functional characterization of the meat products will be helpful and attractive for both the conscious consumer and the food industry.
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