Effect of medicinal mushrooms on blood cells under conditions of diabetes mellitus(2017)
World J Diabetes. 2017 May 15; 8(5): 187–201.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the third most common non-infectious disease leading to early disability and high mortality. Moreover, the number of patients is growing every year. The main symptom of DM is hyperglycemia. Increased levels of blood glucose activate polyol, hexosamine, and protein kinase metabolic pathways cause the intensification of non-enzymatic glycosylation and nitration of macromolecules. This, in turn, leads to the development of oxidative and nitrative stresses and secondary complications, such as different kinds of micro- and macroangiopathies. Metabolic disorders caused by insulin deficiency in diabetes significantly impede the functioning of a homeostasis system, which change the physical, biochemical, morphological, and functional properties of blood cells. As a result, the oxygen-transport function of red blood cells (RBCs), rheological properties of the blood, and functions of immunocompetent cells as well as the process of apoptosis are primarily affected. Modern pharmacotherapy focuses on the search for new preparations that aim to decrease blood glucose levels. Undesirable side effects and adverse reactions caused by synthetic medicines led to the search and investigation of new preparations of natural origin. Medicinal mushrooms play an important role among such new preparations. They are a source of a large number of high- and low-molecular compounds with pronounced biological effects. Our investigations show pronounced hypoglycemic and anti-anemic action of submerged cultivated mycelium powder of medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) on streptozotocin-induced DM in rats. Also, we showed that mycelium powders have membrane protective properties as evidenced by the redistribution of RBC populations towards the growth of full functional cell numbers. Normalization of parameters of leukocyte formula and suppression of apoptosis of white blood cells in diabetic rats treated with A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum mycelia indicates pronounced positive effects of these strains of mushrooms. Thus, the use of medicinal mushrooms for treatment of DM and in prevention development of its secondary complications might be a new effective approach of this disease’s cure. This article is aimed at summarizing and analyzing the literature data and basic achievements concerning DM type 1 treatment using medicinal mushrooms and showing the results obtained in our research.
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